To mitigate this problem, a different connection scheme was utilized between the parapet and the steel reinforcement, which permits a more regular, uniform mesh to be used throughout the parapet. Details of T4 rail with four-bolt anchorage and 254-mm- 10-inch- wide parapet. It was analytically verified through careful monitoring of bolt stresses that none of the anchor bolts reached yield stress at any time during simulation. This allows for freedom in how to deal with the deformation gradient and its transformations in orthotropic layered materials. All of these contact definitions are depicted in Figure 109.
Furthermore it will provide information about new releases and ongoing developments. Description Maximum Peak Impact Force kilonewtons kN kips Test P3 145. Continuing with the parametric evaluation, the values of fracture energies were next increased to 50 percent of the baseline values. Energy-time histories for pendulum impact of T4 bridge rail with fracture energies at 20 percent of baseline values. Due to the inherent flexibility of the bridge deck, the fracture profile of the concrete parapet was less severe than that for the parapet-only model and was similar to that observed in the pendulum tests. It includes the ability to handle a vertical flange wall. However, its density was increased to account for mass of the removed cartridges.
Post, which is freely distributed and runs without a license. Enhancements and corrections are then listed by category. After this time, the rebound portion of the pendulum simulation data deviates from the tests. It is noteworthy that the rail-post-base plate assembly rigidly rotated and subsequently rebounded as observed in the actual pendulum tests. Additional support calculations conducted by the developer are given in appendix B. The response and damage obtained for the two runs was very close.
Fixed improper warning message if any part is removed from d. Short input format for bridge deck concrete material model. The metal rail consists of a short section of an elliptically shaped steel tube welded atop a post fabricated from steel plate. Various steps of this process were systematically repeated to evaluate sensitivity of the model's response to changes in certain modeling and material parameters. They are preliminary values that were later adjusted based on results of all calculations presented within this evaluation report. Thus, the calibration process involved applying a prescribed displacement to the elliptical steel rail. Velocity-time histories for the pendulum tests and simulation are presented in Figure 131.
The anchor bolts are also constrained to the steel base plate via node merging. Transverse reinforcement in the deck cantilevers consisted of two layers of 5 bars located 152. A process of bisection of fracture energy values was followed until a set of values that produced a similar fracture profile to that observed in the test was identified. The biased meshing scheme used for the parapet and deck system, which consists of approximately 76,000 elements, is shown in Figures 105 and 106. Friction is treated in the usual way. It points to the position of E a in the material constants array.
D software was available for simulating impact, and 2. Note that the pendulum follows a circular arc. Parapet failure with fracture energies at 50 percent of baseline values. The parapet-only model of the T4 parapet system with four-bolt anchorage and 254-mm- 10-inch- wide parapet discussed previously was used in the simulation to reduce computational time. This was already in place for explicit.
There are other methods for specifying the license server, but setting these environment variables overrides all other methods. Energy-time histories for pendulum impact of T4 bridge rail with fracture energies at 27. Very similar to option 2 but insensitive to pressure. Figure 96 presents the force-deflection relationships obtained from both simulation and testing of both the rigid pole and T4 bridge rail with 317. Rigid body to rigid body contact. Optionally the user may specify the stiffness, yield and thickness of and elastic- perfectly- plastic coated layer of a fabric that results in a rotational resistance during the simulation. Another analysis case02 was conducted for which erosion was enabled independent of strain i.
A material is said to have deformed plastically if it doesn't return to its original shape after the load is removed. The observed failure mode in tests P3 and P4 was punching shear failure of the field side of the concrete parapet due to load applied through the anchor bolts and base plate. The second test specimen with 317. The anchor bolts were modeled using elastic steel definition due to their size 19. It is speculated that the crush properties of the honeycomb material used to construct the crushable nose assembly in the 1997 rigid pole calibration tests differed from those of the honeycomb materials used in the 2002 pendulum tests of the T4 bridge rail specimens. The maximum impact force calculated in the simulation compares very favorably with those measured in the test P5 as shown in Table 13. The long input format parameters for the parapet and deck concrete are shown in Table 10, respectively.